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C.I.T.E.S. (The Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments, of which South Africa is a founder member. The aim is to ensure that the survival of endangered species is no longer threatened by international trade. It is a voluntary agreement that has to be abided amongst member countries. The final text was accepted on 3 March 1975 and came into effect on 1 July 1975.

Appendix 1

Appendix 1 includes species that are threatened with extinction. Trade amongst these species will only be allowed in exceptional circumstances. It boils down to the fact that CITES I parrots can only be sent internationally from breeder to breeder. However, within South Africa it is business as usual.

To internationally transport a parrot that is listed on Appendix 1, the following is necessary:

  1. An import permit will be issued once the Management Authority of the receiving country has ensured that the aviaries of the potential receiver are suitable for the specific specie and that the receiver is able to take care of the birds
  2. The permit will only be issued if the birds will not be used for commercial trade and if the continued existence of the specie is not threatened
  3. The country of origin must supply an export permit. This permit may only be issued if the breeder concerned is in possession of the parents of the bird concerned and the abovementioned permit has been issued. A person from the local nature conservation must go around to ensure everything is in order.

As Avizandum often contains articles with a number of the species specified by Appendix 1, we felt that it is important for us to make you, the reader, aware of the species covered by CITES restrictions.




  • Cacatua goffiniana Goffin’s Cockatoo
  • Cacatua haematuropygia Red-vented Cockatoo
  • Cacatua moluccensis Moluccan Cockatoo
  • Cacatua sulphurea Lesser sulphur-crested & Citron-crested Cockatoo
  • Probosciger aterrimus Palm Cockatoo

Lories, lorikeets

  • Eos histrio Red & blue lory
  • Vini ultramarina Ultramarine lory

Amazons, macaws, parakeets, parrots

  • Amazona arausiaca Red-necked Amazon
  • Amazona auropalliata Yellow-naped Amazon
  • Amazona barbadensis Yellow-shouldered Amazon
  • Amazona brasiliensis Red-tailed Amazon
  • Amazona finschi Lilac-crowned Amazon
  • Amazona guildingii St Vincent Amazon
  • Amazona imperialis Imperial Amazon
  • Amazona leucocephala Cuban Amazon
  • Amazona oratrix Double yellow-headed Amazon
  • Amazona pretrei Red-specacled Amazon
  • Amazona rhodocorytha Red-crowned Amazon
  • Amazona tucumana Tucaman Amazon
  • Amazona versicolor St Lucia Amazon
  • Amazona vinacea Vinaceous Amazon
  • Amazona viridigenalis Green-cheeked Amazon
  • Amazona vittata Puerto Rican Amazon
  • Anodorhynchus spp. All blue Macaws
  • Ara ambiguus Buffon’s Macaw
  • Ara glaucogularis Blue-throated (Caninde) Macaw
  • Ara macao Scarlet Macaw
  • Ara militaris Military Macaw
  • Ara rubrogenys Red-fronted Macaw
  • Cyanopsitta spixii Spix’s Macaw
  • Cyanoramphus cookii Red-fronted Parakeet
  • Cyanoramphus forbesi Yellow-fronted Parakeet
  • Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae Red-fronted Parakeet
  • Cyanoramphus saisseti Red-fronted Parakeet
  • Cyclopsitta diophthalma coxeni Double-eyed Fig Parrot
  • Eunymphicus cornutus Horned Parakeet
  • Guarouba guarouba Golden (Queen of Bavaria) Conure
  • Neophema chrysogaster Orange-bellied Grass parakeet
  • Ognorhynchus icterotis Yellow-eared Conure
  • Pezoporus occidentalis Night Parrot (possibly extinct)
  • Pezoporus wallicus Ground Parrot
  • Pionopsitta pileata Pileated Parrot
  • Primolius couloni Blue-headed Macaw
  • Primolius maracana Illigar’s Macaw
  • Psephotus chrysopterygius Golden-shouldered parakeet
  • Psephotus dissimilis Hooded Parakeet
  • Psephotus pulcherrimus Paradise Parakeet (possibly extinct)
  • Psittacula echo Mauritius Parakeet
  • Pyrrhura cruentata Blue-throated Conure
  • Rhynchopsitta p.pachyrhyncha Thich-billed Parrot
  • Rhynchopsitta p. terresti Maroon-fronted Parrot
  • Strigops habroptilus Kakapo

Agapornis roseicollis, Budgies, Cockatiels and Indian Ringnecks do not appear on any CITES list. All other parrots are listed on Schedule II of CITES.

More information, including a complete list of all species covered by CITES, is available on the CITES website at

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